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Pandora's Cluster lies within the Southern Hemisphere constellation Sculptor, shown below. Sculptor is a small and faint constellation that's difficult to find, even in very dark skies. Near the bright star Fomalhaut, five dim stars form the shape of a cane. Pandora's Cluster is near the middle star in the cane's shaft, below the cane's hook.

Graphic showing location of the Pandora's Cluster and parallel field observations near the constellation Sculptor

In the star charts above, constellations and stars are located using a coordinate system that's similar to the latitude and longitude system on Earth.

Earth's equator is stretched outward onto the sky to create the celestial equator (at 0 degrees). "Declination" measures the distance (in degrees, from 0 to 90) north or south of the celestial equator, just as latitude measures distance north or south of Earth's equator (also in degrees, from 0 to 90). Stars and other objects that are south of the celestial equator have negative numbers for their declinations and can be seen from the Southern Hemisphere on Earth.

"Right ascension" is like longitude, measuring distance east or west from a chosen reference point. Instead of degrees, though, right ascension is measured in hours, from 0 to 24 hours, just like hours in the day.

SOURCES: Frontier Field location: STScI; All-sky star chart: J. Cornmell and IAU;
Enlarged constellation map: International Astronomical Union (IAU)
GRAPHIC: STScI Graphics Dept.